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Current Treatments or Medications
There have been a growing number of treatments or medications that are currently available to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) since the introduction of the beta-Interferons (IFN-β) in 1993. There are presently over 20 disease-modifying drugs or therapies available to treat this disease. What started as the ABC drugs has grown to over 8 that are given through an injection either intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneously (SubQ). There are 4 drugs are given through an intravenous (IV) infusion which includes Mitoxantrone, it's the only immunosuppressant drug in the group and is mainly used as a chemotherapy. The remaining two IV drugs are immunomodulating. The remaining are the growing list of oral drugs that have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Much of the immune response associated with MS occurs in the early stages of the disease. Aggressive treatment with these medications as early as possible can lower the relapse rate and slow the formation of new lesions.

One of the biggest issues is that many of the disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) that are used to treat MS carry significant health risks. Selecting the therapy that is right for you will depend on careful consideration of many factors, including duration and severity of disease, effectiveness of previous MS treatments, other health issues, cost, and child-bearing status.

FDA Approved Disease-Modifying Agents
Injectable Medications

Avonex® (interferon beta-1a) Recombinant IFN-β1a

Betaseron® (interferon beta-1b) Recombinant IFN-β1b

Copaxone® (glatiramer acetate injection)

Extavia® (interferon beta-1b) Recombinant IFN-β1b

Glatiramer Acetate Injection (glatiramer acetate) generic equivalent of Copaxone

Glatopa® (glatiramer acetate) generic equivalent of Copaxone

Kesimpta® (ofatumumab)

Plegridy® (peginterferon beta-1a) Recombinant IFN-β1a

Rebif® (interferon beta-1a) Recombinant IFN-β1a

Oral Medications

Aubagio® (teriflunomide), a pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor

Bafiertam™ (monomethyl fumarate)

Dimethyl Fumarate (dimethyl fumarate) generic equivalent of Tecfidera

Gilenya® (fingolimod) sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator

Mavenclad® (cladribine)

Mayzent® (siponimod)

Ponvory™ (ponesimod)

Tecfidera® (dimethyl fumarate)

Vumerity® (diroximel fumarate)

Zeposia® (ozanimod)

Infused Medications

Lemtrada® (alemtuzumab)

Mitoxantrone® (generic of former Novantrone)

Ocrevus® (ocrelizumab)

Tysabri® (natalizumab)

Beta-interferons are naturally occurring antiviral proteins. It's felt that they are deficient in those with MS and left vulnerable. The beta-Interferons are believed to supplement the deficiency and basically calm things down. The current beta-interferons are similar in that they attempt to put up a wall against the blood brain barrier. With all therapeutic proteins, there is a potential for immunogenicity making the drug basically non-effective.

Most patients taking interferons find they have flu-like symptoms including fever, chills, sweating, muscle aches and tiredness after the medication is injected. Many of those taking DMTs find, however, that the side effects at times feel worse than those of the actual disease. For many patients, these symptoms will lessen or go away over time.

The non-interferons include Copaxone and Tysabri. Copaxone is a synthetic protein that simulates myelin basic protein and is believed to change the way the immune system reacts to MS by preventing harmful cells from developing and by stimulating beneficial cells in your body. Tysabri is a humanized monoclonal antibody is thought to work by binding to immune cells and interfering with their movement from the bloodstream into the brain and spinal cord.

Tysabri is an adhesion-molecule inhibitor that prevents the movement of T and B cells into the brain which reduces inflammatory immune reactions. Tysabri is generally reserved for patients who see no results from or can't tolerate other types of treatments due to the fact that it increases the risk of PML — a brain infection that is usually fatal (refer to the section titled Treatments - PML). Tysabri is the one medication that tests for JC virus before starting treatment and while on treatment to help identify people who are at a higher risk for PML. Talk to your healthcare provider about the testing required while taking Tysabri.

Mitoxantrone (formerly known under the brand Novantrone) — This immunosuppressant drug isn't specifically for treating stable forms of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), but rather for when it worsens. It can be harmful to the heart and is usually used only in those who have advanced stages of MS. It inserts itself into DNA, decreasing cell division and protein production and has been shown to decrease proliferation of damaging B cells, T cells, and macrophages, and decrease production of damaging cytokines. Mitoxantrone is typically considered at the first indication that a patient's RRMS is worsening or transitioning into secondary-progressive MS (SPMS).

Corticosteroids — These are the most common and longest used treatment for MS, corticosteroids reduce the inflammation that spikes during a relapse. Examples include oral prednisone and intravenous methylprednisolone.

A bit of information that is remarkable is that the dosage quantity of the three interferon's are noticeably small. The dosage is being measured in micrograms (1000th of a gram), and this due to the strength of this type of medication. So a yearly total of 1.56 mg (milligrams) is all that is needed for Avonex, 45.5 mg for Betaseron, and 6.86 mg for Rebif. Considering a single "baby" aspirin is 81 mg, and compare that to the yearly dose of these interferons, and there strength becomes obvious.

It's important to note that some patients using interferon medications have become very depressed or had thoughts of suicide. Call your doctor immediately and talk to them about stopping the use of any medication if you have symptoms of depression (sadness, crying, loss of interest in things you once liked) or if you have any thoughts of hurting yourself.

The reason that these drugs are given at the frequency and amounts listed below, is the same as any medication. It's important to maintain a constant level of the medication in your system for a length of time that it can remain effective. Too much at one time or given too frequently can have serious side effects as with any medication. If too little is given or not frequently enough, then there may be no benefit at all.

The main task for these drugs in very basic terms is that they place a barrier of protection up around the patient's brain and spinal cord so their own immune system can't attack the myelin coating around the nerves. These drugs have to be smart in that they have to distinguish between what your immune system sends in and then make a choice of either letting it pass to fight something else or stopping it because it fits the profile of the enemy.
Neutralizing Antibodies
Antibodies are proteins of the immune system that arise in response to foreign substances, including viruses and bacteria. A neutralizing antibody (NAb) is an antibody that defends a cell from an antigen or infectious body by neutralizing any effect it has biologically. Once developed, they will block or neutralize the biological effects of a medications protein or polypeptide. When this occurs, the effects of a medication will lessen depending on the number of NAbs that are present.

The group of interferons (IFN-β) are of greatest concern to develop a form of antibody to the injected protein. This is NAb because it interferes with or neutralizes biological properties of the interferon. There is no convincing evidence at this time that antibodies that develop in people taking glatiramer acetate have any clinical significance.

Clinical trials have shown that immunogenicity of the IFN-β group along with NAbs will reduce the clinical efficacy or effectiveness of these medications. If and/or when any NAbs are detected through occasional blood tests, then a specific IFN-β treatment typically will stop and be switched to a different IFN-β medication.

This adds to the need for careful monitoring of any DMT given to MS patients and the need for a "plan B" if the current treatment fails. NAbs are just one of many reasons a DMT must be modified for changed all together.
Costs of Drugs
The majority of drugs that are on the market today are made by synthesizing chemical ingredients. These drugs in the most basic way, contain a bit of this and a bit of that, with a stronger version containing more of this and less of that. Once the chemicals are fully understood as well as the associated physical reactions to those chemicals, it becomes as easy as mixing, packaging, and selling. The actual costs over time for these types of drugs should reduce once the research and development (R&D) are gone, but the reality of this is questionable.

The current DMTs costs are similar in that there are still the R&D costs that must be recovered, but these drugs aren't based on chemicals, rather they are "biological" based. They are made by using living cells which adds a significant cost to these drugs. A biological based therapy is a treatment designed to stimulate or restore the ability of the body's immune system to fight infection and disease. Biological therapy is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy. Over time the R&D costs should be paid off and manufacturing should remain the largest cost.

As other DMTs have been introduced since 1993, the average price for them all has slowly risen and not dropped. The cost for patients with MS is now so high some people stop or never even start therapy. Insurance companies typically assign these drugs to the tier with the highest co-pays, and government programs try various ways to limit their use.

At this time, patents giving market exclusivity are ending for the first generation of MS drugs, but competition hasn't appeared. It turns out there is another problem. The FDA has no guidelines for approving "look-a-like" or "follow-on" biologicals. The living cells that produce these special drugs are themselves inventions and as such are protected as "proprietary" by their original developers. A generic follow-on version of Betaseron or Avonex, the first two approved DMTs, will be a cousin, not a twin sister, of the original. This raises important issues for the FDA to consider.

The U.S. market has been slow to move unlike the European markets which now provides an interesting advantage. European countries have already established workable testing and approval pathways. Generic follow-ons taken for other diseases are being prescribed and used in Europe without any loss of safety or power.

Developers of the original innovative biological drugs want their data to remain exclusive, extending their marketplace protection so they may limit the risks they take in the long run-up to FDA clearance. While there are varying views on how long that period should be, the National MS Society (NMSS) believes that legislation should focus on providing a period of exclusivity that rewards innovation, while providing a pathway for efficient approval.

"We have been told that follow-on biologics could lower retail costs by 25% in the first round with greater savings to come as manufacturers gain market share and experience," David Chatel of the NMSS has said. "We know how important it will be for people living with MS to see the cost of their drug therapy reduced. At the same time, we believe it is essential to include a fair period of market protection for the companies that provide innovative treatments for MS, in order to keep new drugs coming into the pipeline."
Disease Modifying Medications Detailed Information
For detailed information, press all or individual to expand and/or collapse:

Injectable Medications:

Avonex

Recombinant IFN-β1a

This medication is taken by injection.
Generic Available: No

Description

Avonex® is a medication manufactured by a biotechnological process from one of the naturally-occurring interferons (a type of protein). It is made up of exactly the same amino acids (major components of proteins) as the interferon beta found in the human body. In controlled clinical trials in relapsing MS, those taking the medication had a reduced risk of disability progression, experienced fewer exacerbations, and showed a reduction in number and size of active lesions in the brain (as shown on MRI) when compared with the group taking a placebo. In a subsequent study of patients who had experienced a single demyelinating event in the optic nerve, spinal cord, or brainstem, and had lesions typical of MS on brain MRI, Avonex significantly delayed the time to a second exacerbation, and thus to a clinically definite diagnosis of MS.

Avonex is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, which include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease (RRMS) and active secondary progressive disease (SPMS with relapses).

Click here to read the FDA Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to read the FDA Medication Guide for patients.

Support

AVONEX SUPPORT PROGRAM
1-800-456-2255
www.avonex.com
www.abovems.com

Financial Assistance Program

Above MS™
1-800-456-2255
www.abovems.com

Betaseron

Recombinant IFN-β1b

This medication is taken by injection.
Generic Available: No

Description

Betaseron® and Extavia® are brand names for interferon beta 1b, a medication manufactured by a biotechnological process from one of the naturally occurring interferons (a type of protein).

Betaseron and Extavia are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing remitting disease, and active secondary progressive disease, in adults.

Click here to read the FDA Prescribing Information for Betaseron.

Click here to read the FDA Medication Guide for patients.

Support

BETAPLUS® Support Program
1-844-788-1470
www.betaseron.com/betaplus-support-program/

Financial Assistance Program

BETAPLUS® Financial Support
1-844-788-1470
www.betaseron.com/betaplus-support-program/financial-support/

Copaxone

Glatiramer acetate

This medication is taken by injection.
Generic Available: Yes

Description

Glatiramer acetate is a synthetic protein that simulates myelin basic protein, a component of the myelin that insulates nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord. This drug seems to block myelin-damaging T-cells through a mechanism that is not completely understood.

Glatiramer acetate is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, which include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease (RRMS) and active secondary progressive disease (SPMS with relapses).

In January, 2014, the FDA approved a new 40 mg/mL dose of this medication, injected three times per week, which is double the standard 20 mg/mL dose that is injected daily. The approval was based on benefits and safety demonstrated in a one-year phase III trial comparing the higher, less-frequent dose of the medication with placebo. The standard dosing option continues to be available.

Click here to read the FDA Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

To read the Patient Information, go to the FDA Prescribing Information on the above link and scroll down to page 5.

Support

COPAXONE SUPPORT PROGRAM
Shared Solutions®
1-800-887-8100
www.copaxone.com www.sharedsolutions.com

Financial Assistance Program

Shared Solutions®
1-800-887-8100
www.sharedsolutions.com

Extavia

Recombinant IFN-β1b

This medication is taken by injection.
Generic Available: No

Description

Extavia® and Betaseron® are brand names for interferon beta 1b, a medication manufactured by a biotechnological process from one of the naturally occurring interferons (a type of protein).

Betaseron and Extavia are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing remitting disease, and active secondary progressive disease, in adults.

Click here to read the Extavia Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to read the Extavia Medication Guide for patients.

Support

Extavia Go Program™
1-866-398-2842
www.extavia.com

Financial Assistance Program

Extavia Go Program™
1-866-398-2842
www.extavia.com

Glatopa

Glatiramer acetate

Glatopa® [generic equivalent of Copaxone 20mg/ML and 40 mg/ML]
This medication is taken by injection.
Generic Available: Yes

Description

Glatopa® is the generic equivalent of Copaxone (glatiramer acetate). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Glatopa as substitutable for Copaxone 20mg (taken daily) and Copaxone 40mg (taken 3 times a week).

Glatiramer acetate is a synthetic protein that simulates myelin basic protein, a component of the myelin that insulates nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord. This drug seems to block myelin-damaging T-cells through a mechanism that is not completely understood.

Glatopa is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease, and active secondary progressive disease, in adults.

Click here to read the FDA Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to read the Patient Information for Glatopa, go to Medication Guide.

Support

GLATOPA SUPPORT PROGRAM
GlatopaCare®​
1-855-GLATOPA (1-855-452-8672)
www.glatopa.com/glatopacare/what-is-glatopacare/

Financial Assistance Program

GlatopaCare®​
1-855-GLATOPA (1-855-452-8672)
www.glatopa.com

Kesimpta

CD20-directed cytolytic antibody

This medication is taken by injection.
Generic Available: No

Description

Kesimpta® is a monoclonal antibody that binds to a docking site (CD20) on some immune B cells and depletes them. B cells are among immune cells that have been implicated in causing nervous system damage in MS. Kesimpta is approved by the FDA for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease (RRMS) and active secondary progressive disease, in adults.

Click here to read the prescribing information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to see the medication guide for patients.

Support

KESIMPTA®
1-855-537-4678
www.kesimpta.com/

Financial Assistance Program

Alongside™ KESIMPTA®
1-855-537-4678
www.kesimpta.com/patient-support/financial-resources

Plegridy

Recombinant IFN-β1a

This medication is taken by injection.
Generic Available: No

Description

Pegylated interferon beta-1a is a “pegylated" form of interferon, meaning that polyethylene glycol is attached to the interferon molecules to allow them to maintain their biologic effects in the body for longer periods of time. Because the biologic effects in the body last longer, dosing can occur at less frequent intervals.

This medication is manufactured by a biotechnological process from one of the naturally-occurring interferons (a type of protein). It is made up of exactly the same amino acids (major components of proteins) as the interferon beta found in the human body.

Plegridy is approved by the FDA for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, which include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease (RRMS) and active secondary progressive disease (SPMS with relapses).

Click here to read the Plegridy prescribing information for healthcare providers.

Click here to read the Plegridy Medication Guide for patients.

Support

Plegridy support services:
Above MS®:
1-800-456-2255
www.plegridy.com/

Financial Assistance Program

GlatopaCare®​
1-855-GLATOPA (1-855-452-8672)
www.abovems.com

Rebif

Recombinant IFN-β1b

This medication is taken by injection.
Generic Available: No

Description

Rebif® is a medication manufactured by a biotechnological process from one of the naturally-occurring interferons (a type of protein). It is made up of exactly the same amino acids (major components of proteins) as the interferon beta found in the human body.

Rebif is approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, which include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease (RRMS) and active secondary progressive disease (SPMS with relapses).

Click here to read the Rebif prescribing information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to read the Rebif Medication Guide for patients.

Support

REBIF SUPPORT PROGRAM:
MS LifeLines®
1-877-44-REBIF (1-877-447-3243)
www.rebif.com/

Financial Assistance Program

MS LifeLines®
1-877-447-3243
www.mslifelines.com

Oral Medications:

Aubagio

Teriflunomide

This is an oral medication in tablet form.
Generic Available: No

Description

Aubagio® (teriflunomide), a pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor, is an oral compound that inhibits the function of specific immune cells that have been implicated in MS. It is related to leflunomide, a drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Aubagio can inhibit a key enzyme required by white blood cells (lymphocytes) – which in turn reduces the proliferation of T and B immune cells that are active in MS and also inhibits the production of immune messenger chemicals by T cells.

Aubagio was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing remitting disease, and active secondary progressive disease, in adults.

Click here to see the FDA Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to see the FDA Medication Guide for patients.

Support

MS One to One
1-855-MSOne2One (1-855-676-6326)
www.MSOnetoOne.com

Financial Assistance Program

MS One to One
1-855-MSOne2One (1-855-676-6326)
www.MSOnetoOne.com

Bafiertam

Monomethyl Fumarate

This is an oral medication in capsule form.
Generic Available: No

Description

Bafiertam is an oral therapy taken two times per day. Bafiertam is similar to Tecfidera® and Vumerity® but has a distinct chemical structure. Although their exact mechanisms of action are not known, fumarate therapies are thought to modulate the immune response underlying MS to be less inflammatory, and may have antioxidant properties that could be protective against damage to the brain and spinal cord.

Bafiertam was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease, and active secondary progressive disease, in adults.

Click here to read the Bafiertam Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to read the Medication Guide for patients.

Support

BANNER PATIENT SUPPORT
1-855-322-6637
www.bafiertam.com

Financial Assistance Program

BANNER PATIENT SUPPORT
1-855-322-6637
www.bafiertam.com

Dimethyl Fumarate Delayed-Release Capsules

Dimethyl Fumarate

This is an oral medication in capsule form.
Generic Available: Yes

Description

Dimethyl Fumarate Delayed-Release Capsules is an FDA-approved therapeutic equivalent to Tecfidera® (dimethyl fumarate). Dimethyl fumarate is a formulation that was developed specifically for use by people with multiple sclerosis. A chemically related compound, called Fumaderm (dimethyl fumarate and fumaric acid esters), has been used at higher doses for decades in Germany to treat acute flare-ups of psoriasis. Although its exact mechanism of action is not known, dimethyl fumarate is thought to modulate the immune response to be less inflammatory and may have antioxidant properties that could be protective against damage to the brain and spinal cord.

Dimethyl Fumarate Delayed-Release Capsules is approved by the FDA for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease and active secondary progressive disease in adults.

Click here to read the Dimethyl Fumarate Delayed-Release Capsules Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals (information for patients is at the end of this document).

Support

For more information call:
1-724-514-1800
https://www.viatris.com/en

Financial Assistance Program

No patient assistance program available at this time.

Gilenya

Fingolimod

This is an oral medication in capsule form.
Generic Available: No

Description

Gilenya® is a new class of medication called a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator, which is thought to act by retaining certain white blood cells (lymphocytes) in the lymph nodes, thereby preventing those cells from crossing the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system (CNS). Preventing the entry of these cells into the CNS reduces inflammatory damage to nerve cells.

Gilenya was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease, and active secondary progressive disease, in patients 10 years of age and older.

Click here to read the Gilenya Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to read the Gilenya Medication Guide for patients.

Support

Gilenya Go Program
1-800-GILENYA (1-800-445-3692)
www.gilenya.com/c/ms-pill/go-program

Financial Assistance Program

Gilenya Go Program
1-800-GILENYA (1-800-445-3692)
www.gilenya.com/c/ms-pill/go-program

Mavenclad

Cladribine

This is an oral medication in tablet form.
Generic Available: No

Description

Mavenclad® is a compound that targets certain types of white blood cells (lymphocytes) that drive the immune attack in MS. It temporarily reduces the number of both T and B lymphocytes without continuous suppression of the immune system.

Mavenclad® is approved by the FDA for adults with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, to include relapsing-remitting disease and active secondary progressive disease. Because of its safety profile, use of Mavenclad is generally recommended for patients who have had an inadequate response to, or are unable to tolerate, an alternate drug indicated for the treatment of MS.

Click here to read the Prescribing Information for healthcare providers.

Click here to read the Medication Guide for patients.

Support

MS LifeLines®
1-877-447-3243
www.mslifelines.com

Financial Assistance Program

MS LifeLines®
1-877-447-3243
www.mavenclad.com

Mayzent

Siponimod

This is an oral medication in tablet form.
Generic Available: No

Description

Mayzent® is an immune system-modulating therapy thought to act by retaining certain white blood cells in the body's lymph nodes, keeping them out of circulation and out of the central nervous system. Mayzent® also enters the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) where it may have direct anti-inflammatory and/or other effects.

Mayzent® is approved by the FDA for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, which include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease (RRMS) and active secondary progressive disease (SPMS with relapses).

Click here to read the prescribing information for healthcare providers.

Click here to read the medication guide for patients.

Support

The Mayzent® Patient Support Program
1-877-629-9368
www.mayzent.com/financial-support

Financial Assistance Program

Alongside MS™
1-877-629-9368
www.mayzent.com/financial-support

Ponvory

Ponesimod

This is an oral medication in tablet form.
Generic Available: No

Description

Ponvory is a selective sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulator. It is thought to act by promoting the retention of certain white blood cells in the body’s lymph nodes, keeping them out of circulation and from entering the brain and spinal cord.

Ponvory is approved by the FDA for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, which include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease (RRMS), and active secondary progressive disease, in adults.

Click here to read the Ponvory Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to read the Ponvory Medication Guide for patients (scroll to page 30).

Support

This medication is expected to be available April 2021. Information on availability, cost, and patient support programs will be provided when they become available.

Financial Assistance Program

This medication is expected to be available April 2021. Information on availability, cost, and patient support programs will be provided when they become available.

Tecfidera

Dimethyl Fumarate

This is an oral medication in capsule form.
Generic Available: Yes

Description

Tecfidera® is an oral therapy contained in capsules taken two times per day. Tecfidera, formerly known as BG-12, is dimethyl fumarate, a formulation that was developed specifically for use by people with multiple sclerosis. A chemically related compound, called Fumaderm (dimethyl fumarate and fumaric acid esters), has been used at higher doses for decades in Germany to treat acute flare-ups of psoriasis. Although its exact mechanism of action is not known, Tecfidera is thought to modulate the immune response to be less inflammatory and may have antioxidant properties that could be protective against damage to the brain and spinal cord.

Tecfidera is approved by the FDA for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease and active secondary progressive disease in adults.

Click here to read the Tecfidera Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to read the Tecfidera Patient Information.

Support

Above MS™
1-800-456-2255
www.AboveMS.com

Financial Assistance Program

Above MS™
1-800-456-2255
www.AboveMS.com

Vumerity

Diroximel Fumarate

This is an oral medication in capsule form.
Generic Available: No

Description

Vumerity® is a capsule taken twice daily by mouth. It is similar to another disease modifying therapy, Tecfidera, but has a distinct chemical structure that has been shown to be better tolerated, with fewer reported gastrointestinal side effects than Tecfidera. Once in the body, Vumerity rapidly converts to the same active ingredient as Tecfidera. Although its exact mechanism of action is not known, Vumerity is thought to modulate the immune response to be less inflammatory and may have antioxidant properties that could be protective against damage to the brain and spinal cord.

Vumerity is approved by the FDA for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease and active secondary progressive disease in adults.

Click here to read the Vumerity Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to read the Vumerity Patient Information

Support

Above MS™
1-800-456-2255
www.AboveMS.com

Financial Assistance Program

Above MS™
1-800-456-2255
www.AboveMS.com

Zeposia

Ozanimod

This is an oral medication in capsule form.
Generic Available: No

Description

Zeposia® is a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator, which is thought to act by retaining certain white blood cells (lymphocytes) in the lymph nodes, thereby preventing those cells from crossing the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system (CNS). Preventing the entry of these cells into the CNS reduces inflammatory damage to nerve cells.

Zeposia was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), to include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease, and active secondary progressive disease, in adults.

Click here to read the Zeposia Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to read the Zeposia Medication Guide for patients.

Support

ZEPOSIA 360 SUPPORT™
1-833-937-6742
www.zeposia.com/support-program-for-patients/

Financial Assistance Program

ZEPOSIA 360 SUPPORT™
1-833-937-6742
www.zeposia.com/copay

Infused Medications:

Lemtrada

Alemtuzumab

This medication is given by IV infusion.
Generic Available: No

Description

Lemtrada® is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed at CD52 (a protein on the surface of immune cells).

Lemtrada is approved by the FDA for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, to include relapsing remitting disease and active secondary progressive disease, in adults. Because of Lemtrada’s safety profile, the FDA recommends that this medication generally be reserved for people who have had an inadequate response to two or more MS therapies.

Click here to read the Lemtrada Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to read the Lemtrada Medication Guide for patients.

Support

Call Genzyme at 1-855-MSOne2One (1-855-676-6326)
www.msonetoone.com

Financial Assistance Program

Lemtrada Copay Program
1-855-MSOne2One (1-855-676-6326)
www.lemtrada.com

Novantrone

Mitoxantrone

This medication is given by IV infusion.
Generic Available: Yes

Description

Novantrone belongs to the general group of medicines called antineoplastics. Prior to its approval for use in MS, it was used only to treat certain forms of cancer. It acts in MS by suppressing the activity of T cells, B cells, and macrophages that are thought to lead the attack on the myelin sheath.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Novantrone for reducing neurologic disability and/or the frequency of clinical relapses (attacks) in:

1. secondary progressive MS (disease that has changed from relapsing-remitting to progressive at a variable rate);
2. progressive-relapsing MS (disease characterized by gradual increase in disability from onset with clear, acute relapses along the way);
3. worsening relapsing-remitting MS (disease characterized by clinical attacks without complete remission, resulting in a step-wise worsening of disability.

Note: Novantrone has not been approved for the treatment of primary-progressive MS (characterized by progression from disease onset with no acute attacks or remissions).

Click here to read the Novantrone Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to read the Novantrone Medication Guide for patients.

Support

None available at this time.

Financial Assistance Program

No patient assistance program available at this time.

Ocrevus

Ocrelizumab

This medication is given by IV infusion.
Generic Available: No

Description

Ocrevus® is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 positive B lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which contribute to nerve damage in MS.

Ocrevus is approved by the FDA for the treatment relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis in adults, which include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease (RRMS) and active secondary progressive disease (SPMS with relapses). Ocrevus is also approved by the FDA to treat primary progressive MS in adults.

Click here to read the Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to read the Medication Guide for patients.

Support

Genentech®
1-844-627-3887

Financial Assistance Program

Genentech® Access Solutions
1-877-436-3683
www.Genentech-Access.com

Tysabri

Natalizumab

This medication is given by IV infusion.
Generic Available: No

Description

Tysabri® is a laboratory-produced monoclonal antibody. It is designed to hamper movement of potentially damaging immune cells from the bloodstream, across the “blood-brain barrier” into the brain and spinal cord.

Tysabri is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a monotherapy (not to be used in combination with other disease-modifying therapies) for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, which include clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting disease (RRMS) and active secondary progressive disease (SPMS with relapses).

Click here to read the Tysabri Prescribing Information for healthcare professionals.

Click here to read the Tysabri Medication Guide for patients.

Support

Above MS™
1-800-456-2255
www.AboveMS.com

Financial Assistance Program

Above MS™
1-800-456-2255
www.AboveMS.com